The Ampere Altra Review: 2x 80 Cores Arm Server Performance Monsterby Andrei Frumusanu on December 18, 2020 6:00 AM EST
- Posted in
- Neoverse N1
As we’re wrapping up 2020, one last large review item for the year is Ampere’s long promised new Altra Arm server processor. This year has indeed been the year where Arm servers have had a breakthrough; Arm’s new Neoverse-N1 CPU core had been the IP designer’s first true dedicated server core, promising focused performance and efficiency for the datacentre.
Earlier in the year we had the chance to test out the first Neoverse-N1 silicon in the form of Amazon’s Graviton2 inside of AWS EC2 cloud compute offering. The Graviton2 seemed like a very impressive design, but was rather conservative in its goals, and it’s also a piece of hardware that the general public cannot access outside of Amazon’s own cloud services.
Ampere Computing, founded in 2017 by former Intel president Renée James, built upon initial IP and design talent of AppliedMicro’s X-Gene CPUs, and with Arm Holdings becoming an investor in 2019, is at this moment in time the sole “true” merchant silicon vendor designing and offering up Neoverse-N1 server designs.
To date, the company has had a few products out in the form of the eMAG chips, but with rather disappointing performance figures - understandable given that those were essentially legacy products based on the old X-Gene microarchitecture.
Ampere’s new Altra product line, on the other hand is the culmination of several years of work and close collaboration with Arm – and the company first “true” product which can be viewed as Ampere pedigree.
Today, with hardware in hand, we’re finally taking a look at the very first publicly available high-performance Neoverse based Arm server hardware, designed for nothing less than maximum achievable performance, aiming to battle the best designs from Intel and AMD.
Mount Jade Server with Altra Quicksilver
Ampere has supplied us with the company’s server reference design, dubbed “Mount Jade”, a 2-socket 2U rack unit sever. The server came supplied with two Altra Q80-33 processors, Ampere’s top-of-the-line SKU with each featuring 80 cores running at up to 3.3GHz, with TDP reaching up to 250W per socket.
The server was designed with close collaboration with Wiwynn for this dual socket, and with GIGABYTE for the single socket variant, as previously hinted by the two company’s announcements of leading hyperscale deployments of the Altra platforms. The Ampere-branded Mount Jade DVT reference motherboard comes in a typical server blue colour scheme and features 2 sockets with up to 16 DIMM slots per socket, reaching up to 4TB DRAM capacity per socket, although our review unit came equipped with 256GB per socket across 8 DIMMs to fully populate the chip’s 8-channel memory controllers.
This is also our first look at Ampere’s first-generation socket design. The company doesn’t really market any particular name to the socket, but it’s a massive LGA4926 socket with a pin-count in excess of any other commercial server socket from AMD or Intel. The holding mechanism is somewhat similar to that of AMD’s SP3 system, with a holding mechanism tensioned by a 5-point screw system.
The chip itself is absolutely humongous and amongst the current publicly available processors is the biggest in the industry, out-sizing AMD’s SP3 form-factor packaging, coming in at around 77 x 66.8mm – about the same length but considerably wider than AMD’s counterparts.
Although it’s a massive chip with a huge IHS, the Mount Jade server surprised me with its cooling solution as the included 250W type cooler only made contact with about 1/4th the surface area of the heat spreader.
Ampere here doesn’t have a recessed “lip” around the IHS for the mounting bracket to hold onto the chip like on AMD or Intel systems, so the actual IHS surface is actually recessed in relation to the bracket which means you cannot have a flat surface cooler design across the whole of the chip surface.
Instead, the included 250W design cooler uses a huge vapour chamber design with a “pedestal” to make contact with the chip. Ampere explains that they’ve experimented with different designs and found that a smaller area pedestal actually worked better for heat dissipation – siphoning heat off from the actual chip die which is notably smaller than the IHS and chip package.
The cooler design is quite complex, with vertical fin stacks dissipating heat directly off the vapour chamber, with additional large horizontal fins dissipating heat from 6 U-shaped heat pipes that draw heat from the vapour chamber. It’s definitely a more complex and high-end design than what we’re used to in server coolers.
Although the Mount Jade server is definitely a very interesting piece of hardware, our focus today lies around the actual new Altra processors themselves, so let’s dive into the new Q80-33 80-core chip next.
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realbabilu - Friday, December 18, 2020 - linkwell it support fortran also using Arm Fortran Compiler, unlike m1.
realbabilu - Friday, December 18, 2020 - linkmy bad. Numerical Algorithms Group (Nag) has fortran for m1. lets battle begin X86 vs arm
GruenSein - Friday, December 18, 2020 - linkThe userbase for fortran on M1 is probably super small anyway. Although.. I can see the HPC cluster entirely made up of Macbook Airs before my eye. Just like the PS3-cluster the air force used to have ;)
davidorti - Friday, December 18, 2020 - linkWouldn't it be way cheaper a cluster of minis?
Flunk - Friday, December 18, 2020 - linkNo, the hardware would be cheaper but the maintenance would be much more time-intensive. That's why companies that need a lot of processing hardware buy enterprise level hardware. The cost of maintaining the system quickly eclipses the hardware costs. And if you're using a computer to make money, quite often the hardware cost is only a small amount of your costs.
FunBunny2 - Friday, December 18, 2020 - linkI dunno about the "quite often the hardware cost is only a small amount of your costs." part. as modern production methods have been ever more automated, (I'm talkin to you, bitcoin mining), there's almost no other cost. now, some may argue, in the extreme case of mining for instance, that power is the largest component; but isn't that 'hardware' cost? it certainly isn't labor or interest or land or even CxOs' cut. fewer and fewer automation efforts are conducted in assembler or even naked C or java or FORTRAN, but in frameworks, often with bespoke syntax and with headcounts way lower than their native languages. so, yeah, now into the foreseeable future, hardware is the biggest byte.
at_clucks - Friday, December 18, 2020 - linkThe point was a cluster of Minis would probably be cheaper than a cluster of Airs because why pay for screen, battery, keyboard and all that.
Spunjji - Monday, December 21, 2020 - linkTrue, but I did enjoy the holistic response. Just think of the potential: batteries are a built-in UPS, and you don't need to mess about with any sort of KVM arrangement - if a node drops out, you can go right to it and poke it to find out what's up!
ProDigit - Saturday, December 19, 2020 - linkI guess the results showing lower TDP despite 100% load, means that the cores are sometimes idling for a part of their clock frequency.
It means the cpu is lacking buffers, and isn't fully optimized.
mode_13h - Sunday, December 20, 2020 - linkBuffers and even cache can't completely avoid memory bottlenecks.
Also, you can run a core 100% on code with very little parallelism and not draw much power. Code with lots of ILP and especially vector arithmetic burns a lot more power, which is why AVX2 and especially AVX-512 trigger significant clock-throttling on Intel.